An adult Javalina weighs between 30-65 pounds, but can get to weights nearing 80 ( in suburban areas feeding on garbage and landscaping) They a are a grayish black in color with a white collar around the neck. There coat is made up of hollow straw-like hairs that act as insulation from the heat. Javalina evolved in South America and migrated north into the United States, arriving in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. It is estimated that this migration took place as recently as 700 years ago.
Most people classify javelina as pigs but in fact they are considered a collared peccary. Peccaries have different distinctions that separate them from the barn yard pig.
On the back there is a gland which secretes a musky, oily substance, and they have preorbital glands on there face. The ears are small and round, and the eyes are beady. The barrel-like body is supported by short legs. The head is pointed, and the nose has a disc of round cartilage at the tip. The tail is vestigial. There digestive system is more complex digestive system which allows them digest thorns and needles and harsh roots etc.
During the winter, javalina are most active during the day in order to take advantage of the sun’s heat, resting in caves or self-dug holes at night. Javalina are not really equipped to handle cold whether, you will often find them â€œdog piledâ€ on each other when bedded to keep warm. During the summer, feeding occurs in the early morning and late afternoon and into the night, with the noon hours spent resting in the shade. They are very good runners, and have been clocked at speeds up to 35 kmph / 21 mph. While their eyesight is poor but do not under estimate there ability to pick up movement. Javalina have good senses of hearing and great sense of smell. Groups have individual territories which overlap at focal points such as watering holes and mud wallows, which are used primarily at night. These territories are usually 0.5-0.8 square kilometers in size. The inner territory (non-overlapping part) of each group is characterized by smell. Males often mark rocks and trees near resting areas with their dorsal glands. At these well-used resting spots and along the territorial boundaries are defecation sites which are visited by the whole herd. The main herd may split up inside the territory for up to two weeks. The group is completely closed, with no new members ever being accepted, even though one in every ten offspring born is rejected from the group. Population densities vary from 1-19 animals per square kilometer. Numerous vocalizations have been recorded, including snorts, squeals, barks, and rumbling growls.
Family group: Herds of 2-20 animals, with herds up to 54 individuals being recorded.
Diet: Cactus,Roots, fruits, tubers, grasses, leaves, eggs, carrion.
Main Predators: Coyote, puma, jaguar, bobcat.